Jewish World Review Nov. 30, 2001 / 15 Kislev, 5762
Howard Fienberg and Iain Murray
http://www.NewsAndOpinion.com -- Call it "the Muslim question." Since Sept. 11, America has grappled with public policy decisions on security, immigration and border control, racial profiling, and so on. When issues as sensitive as Muslim profiling are raised, it helps to have firm facts and figures. But the drive for information has hit a roadblock - neither the Census Bureau nor the Immigration and Naturalization Service are permitted to collect information rooted in religious faith. How can we debate such thorny problems when we have no official idea how many Muslims are in America?
To establish a credible figure, we must wade through a swamp of conflicting data. The media have allowed opposing experts to promote their own figures: 1, 2, 4, 6, 7 million. These variations arise from differing approaches: estimates from individual surveys, indirect calculations based on data from places of worship, and proxy measures like ancestry and country of origin. Each has drawbacks, but some are better than others.
The most prominent study using ancestry data put the Muslim population at 4 million. Using U.S. Census Supplemental Survey data on ancestry, this study assumed that the number of Muslims in this country of a specific ancestry matched the proportion in their countries of origin. The study then adjusted for African American Muslims and immigration and birth rates.
But estimates from ancestry data usually fail to account for deaths, emigration, or conversions. Also, immigrants often differ markedly from the general population in their countries of origin. Russian immigrants at the turn of the century were predominantly Jewish, not Russian Orthodox; immigrants from Lebanon mainly Christian, not Muslim.
So if we can't pinpoint a reliable estimate this way, can we rely on statistics from places of worship? Here, the most prominent example is the 2000 Mosque Study Project (MSP). The MSP produced the estimate of six to seven million Muslims in America, the figure most frequently cited in the press. The MSP surveyed individual mosques, finding 340 adults and children participated at the average mosque and another 1629 were "associated in any way" with the average mosque's activities, yielding a figure of two million Muslims. The authors then adjusted the estimate to six to seven million overall to take into account family members and unaffiliated Muslims.
With impressive candor, the MSP's lead researcher, Professor Ihsan Bagby of Shaw University in North Carolina, conceded to the Associated Press that the number was a mere "guestimation." That's because the MSP is riddled with methodological flaws.
Mosques (just like any other body) could have inflated their rolls by counting "members" who were no longer active. For example, the Los Angeles Times reported on Oct. 25, that "the Southern Baptist Convention conducted an audit of membership rolls a few years ago and found 25 percent of those listed had died or left the faith." Others may have intentionally inflated their estimates. Given the loose definition of just who is "associated in any way" with a mosque's religious life, it is likely that some individuals were "associated" with more than one mosque, resulting in their being counted more than once.
Moreover, almost 15 percent of Muslims in the MSP sample came from only two mosques (each claimed almost 50,000 affiliates).The sample also appears biased towards larger mosques, distorting the size of the "average" mosque.
Surveying individuals might provide better data. Tom Smith of the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago was recently commissioned by the American Jewish Committee to come up with a better estimate of Muslims in America. Smith drew his estimate from NORC's most recent General Social Survey (GSS), which found 1.4 million adult Muslims. To estimate the number of Muslim adults and children, Smith took the GSS data and made two assumptions: Every Muslim respondent represented a Muslim home and every non-Muslim respondent represented a non-Muslim home. His process yielded an estimate of 1.7 million.
Case closed? Not quite. The City University of New York (CUNY) recently released their 2001 American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS). ARIS asked members of 50,000 American households to identify their own religious affiliation, if any, and that of their spouse or partner. ARIS estimated 1.1 million adult Muslims, further adjusted to 1.8 million adults and children.
Being drawn from wider, scientifically-representative samples, the estimates of religious affiliation provided by the ARIS and the GSS both seem reasonable. Delicate policy decisions require information, but knowing how accurate that information is can be at least as important as having it at all. While a precise figure remains elusive, '2 million Muslims, give or take a few hundred thousand' appears to be America's most accurate number - for