The whole idea of a free society is based on a very simple idea that is very hard to live by: People have the right to be wrong.
This idea has ancient roots, but it was always and everywhere a minority opinion, unpopular with both the masses and the rulers, until relatively recently.
In the "modern" era, its status as one of the defining ideas of Western civilization can be traced to the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648. After a century of bloody religious wars between Catholics and Protestants -- with Jews often getting caught in the crossfire -- the exhausted rulers of
With Westphalia, as historian C.V. Wedgwood put it, the West had begun to understand "the essential futility of putting the beliefs of the mind to the judgment of the sword."
Why revisit this history?
For two reasons. First, to underscore how culture wars are nothing new in the West, and as bad as ours are today, they could get much, much worse. Second, to illustrate a point lost on culture warriors of the left and the right.
Pluralism and tolerance are not simply nice ideals, like good manners. They are what management gurus call "best practices," learned after millennia of gory trial and error.
Very few people who embraced doctrines of religious and political liberty did so at first because they thought it was the right way to organize society. Cromwell was more of a religious zealot than any Christian right-winger today.
If he thought he could get away with it, he would have made mandatory compliance with his faith the law of the land. But Cromwell recognized that he had to compromise with reality if he was going to end the religious conflicts plaguing his country.
You might think that the current controversy over NFL players refusing to stand for the National Anthem, the vandalizing or removal of statues -- not just of Confederate generals, but of any real or alleged historical villains -- and the P.C. firestorms erupting across American campuses aren't about religion, so this history doesn't have much relevance for today.
But you would be wrong.
The religious conflicts of the past were ultimately about which values, rituals, customs and ideas should be imposed on everybody. Traditional religion may be receding in many parts of American culture, but politics is taking on a decidedly religious flavor -- and religion is becoming increasingly politicized.
People are growing intolerant of any dissent from their idea of what everyone should believe. Agree with me and you're one of the good guys; disagree with me and you're not just wrong, you're my enemy, a heretic, a traitor, a bigot. Opportunists recognize that exacerbating this polarization redounds to their own benefit, because at least for now, doing so helps raise money, ratings, clicks and poll numbers.
We are a long way off from putting beliefs of the mind to the judgment of the sword, but that is the logical destination of the path we are on, because we have lost faith in the utility of upholding the right to be wrong.