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Jonathan Tobin: Defending the Right to a Jewish State

Heather Hale: Compliment your kids without giving them big heads

Megan Shauri: 10 ways you are ruining your own happiness

Carolyn Bigda: 8 Best Dividend Stocks for 2015

Kiplinger's Personal Finance editors: 7 Things You Didn't Know About Paying Off Student Loans

Samantha Olson: The Crucial Mistake 55% Of Parents Are Making At Their Baby's Bedtime

Densie Well, Ph.D., R.D. Open your eyes to yellow vegetables

The Kosher Gourmet by Megan Gordon With its colorful cache of purples and oranges and reds, COLLARD GREEN SLAW is a marvelous mood booster --- not to mention just downright delish
April 18, 2014

Rabbi Yonason Goldson: Clarifying one of the greatest philosophical conundrums in theology

Caroline B. Glick: The disappearance of US will

Megan Wallgren: 10 things I've learned from my teenagers

Lizette Borreli: Green Tea Boosts Brain Power, May Help Treat Dementia

John Ericson: Trying hard to be 'positive' but never succeeding? Blame Your Brain

The Kosher Gourmet by Julie Rothman Almondy, flourless torta del re (Italian king's cake), has royal roots, is simple to make, . . . but devour it because it's simply delicious

April 14, 2014

Rabbi Dr Naftali Brawer: Passover frees us from the tyranny of time

Greg Crosby: Passing Over Religion

Eric Schulzke: First degree: How America really recovered from a murder epidemic

Georgia Lee: When love is not enough: Teaching your kids about the realities of adult relationships

Cameron Huddleston: Freebies for Your Lawn and Garden

Gordon Pape: How you can tell if your financial adviser is setting you up for potential ruin

Dana Dovey: Up to 500,000 people die each year from hepatitis C-related liver disease. New Treatment Has Over 90% Success Rate

Justin Caba: Eating Watermelon Can Help Control High Blood Pressure

The Kosher Gourmet by Joshua E. London and Lou Marmon Don't dare pass over these Pesach picks for Manischewitz!

April 11, 2014

Rabbi Hillel Goldberg: Silence is much more than golden

Caroline B. Glick: Forgetting freedom at Passover

Susan Swann: How to value a child for who he is, not just what he does

Cameron Huddleston: 7 Financial Tasks You Should Tackle Right Now

Sandra Block and Lisa Gerstner: How to Profit From Your Passion

Susan Scutti: A Simple Blood Test Might Soon Diagnose Cancer

Chris Weller: Have A Slow Metabolism? Let Science Speed It Up For You

The Kosher Gourmet by Diane Rossen Worthington Whitefish Terrine: A French take on gefilte fish

April 9, 2014

Jonathan Tobin: Why Did Kerry Lie About Israeli Blame?

Samuel G. Freedman: A resolution 70 years later for a father's unsettling legacy of ashes from Dachau

Jessica Ivins: A resolution 70 years later for a father's unsettling legacy of ashes from Dachau

Kim Giles: Asking for help is not weakness

Kathy Kristof and Barbara Hoch Marcus: 7 Great Growth Israeli Stocks

Matthew Mientka: How Beans, Peas, And Chickpeas Cleanse Bad Cholesterol and Lowers Risk of Heart Disease

Sabrina Bachai: 5 At-Home Treatments For Headaches

The Kosher Gourmet by Daniel Neman Have yourself a matzo ball: The secrets bubby never told you and recipes she could have never imagined

April 8, 2014

Lori Nawyn: At Your Wit's End and Back: Finding Peace

Susan B. Garland and Rachel L. Sheedy: Strategies Married Couples Can Use to Boost Benefits

David Muhlbaum: Smart Tax Deductions Non-Itemizers Can Claim

Jill Weisenberger, M.S., R.D.N., C.D.E : Before You Lose Your Mental Edge

Dana Dovey: Coffee Drinkers Rejoice! Your Cup Of Joe Can Prevent Death From Liver Disease

Chris Weller: Electric 'Thinking Cap' Puts Your Brain Power Into High Gear

The Kosher Gourmet by Marlene Parrish A gift of hazelnuts keeps giving --- for a variety of nutty recipes: Entree, side, soup, dessert

April 4, 2014

Rabbi David Gutterman: The Word for Nothing Means Everything

Charles Krauthammer: Kerry's folly, Chapter 3

Amy Peterson: A life of love: How to build lasting relationships with your children

John Ericson: Older Women: Save Your Heart, Prevent Stroke Don't Drink Diet

John Ericson: Why 50 million Americans will still have spring allergies after taking meds

Cameron Huddleston: Best and Worst Buys of April 2014

Stacy Rapacon: Great Mutual Funds for Young Investors

Sarah Boesveld: Teacher keeps promise to mail thousands of former students letters written by their past selves

The Kosher Gourmet by Sharon Thompson Anyone can make a salad, you say. But can they make a great salad? (SECRETS, TESTED TECHNIQUES + 4 RECIPES, INCLUDING DRESSINGS)

April 2, 2014

Paul Greenberg: Death and joy in the spring

Dan Barry: Should South Carolina Jews be forced to maintain this chimney built by Germans serving the Nazis?

Mayra Bitsko: Save me! An alien took over my child's personality

Frank Clayton: Get happy: 20 scientifically proven happiness activities

Susan Scutti: It's Genetic! Obesity and the 'Carb Breakdown' Gene

Lecia Bushak: Why Hand Sanitizer May Actually Harm Your Health

Stacy Rapacon: Great Funds You Can Own for $500 or Less

Cameron Huddleston: 7 Ways to Save on Home Decor

The Kosher Gourmet by Steve Petusevsky Exploring ingredients as edible-stuffed containers (TWO RECIPES + TIPS & TECHINQUES)

Jewish World Review

How wildfire fighting works

By Marshall Brain

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http://www.JewishWorldReview.com | (MCT) If you have been watching firefighters battle the wildfires in California, you know that they are using many different technologies. Some of these technologies are as old as human intelligence, while others are brand new.

The most photographic of all the technologies involves airdrops. You have probably seen news footage of airplanes and helicopters dropping huge plumes of red fire retardant on the fires. What is the liquid, and why is it red?

A typical airplane to use is the C-130. Inside the C-130 are tanks that hold 3,000 gallons of liquid. It is possible to dump 3,000 gallons of normal water, but usually they add two things to the water when fighting a wildfire. The first is a red dye. The dye is handy because it leaves a big red mark on the ground to let the next pilot know which areas have already been hit.

The second is a product called Phos-Chek. It's what is known as a "Long-Term Fire Retardant". The two main ingredients in Phos-Chek are ammonium phosphate and diammonium sulfate, both of which are forms of fertilizer.

One advantage of Phos-Chek is the fact that it lasts. It creates a no-burn zone until it is washed off by a strong rain.

You may have also seen trucks covering houses in what looks like foam. In most cases it is actually a polymer gel made of sodium polyacrylate. This is the same chemical that you find in disposable diapers to absorb liquid and prevent leaks.

The polymer mixes with water to form a gel that coats the house and can last 12 to 24 hours. When the fire comes, it has to boil off all the water in the gel coating before it can light the house on fire. With a gel coating about a quarter of an inch thick, the fire is gone before all of the water in the gel evaporates, and the house is untouched by the fire.

NASA was also helping out this year, providing robotic airplanes with infrared cameras. The cameras can penetrate smoke to map out new fires and hot spots, making it easier to track the blaze as it develops.

There are also the old standbys. Bulldozers can cut firebreaks through fields and forests on level terrain. The basic idea here is to simply remove burnable material from the path of the fire so that the fire dies when it hits the firebreak. In remote areas and in hilly terrain, the bulldozers aren't available. It's up to human beings to build the firebreaks by hand.

The people who fight fires this way are called hotshots. It's a dangerous job. Hotshots work in teams and are often very close to the fire. For protection they wear fireproof Nomex shirts that are usually bright yellow to improve visibility. Using shovels, axes and chainsaws, hotshots create a firebreak. Hotshots use radios and GPS receivers to keep track of the fire, and helicopters drop drinking water and supplies.

Sometimes things get out of control. A change in wind direction can bring the fire right on top of a hotshot team. In that kind of situation, hotshots carry a piece of technology that they use as a last resort. It is a small tent-like structure called a fire shelter and it only weighs about half a pound. The key is a reflective aluminum foil shell that reflects the radiant heat of the blaze.

Even with all of this technology and manpower, a wildfire is still a powerful enemy with a mind of its own. As we saw this year, hundreds of thousands of acres can be consumed by a big fire before people can bring it under control.

Every weekday JewishWorldReview.com publishes what many in the media and Washington consider "must-reading". Sign up for the daily JWR update. It's free. Just click here.

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Previously:


How vitamins work
How ejection seats work
How reattaching limbs works
How hot air balloons work
How paparazzi work
How counterfeiting works
How CDs work
How the Edsel worked
How Stinger missiles work
How hybrid cars work
How sharks work
How mosquitoes work
How diesel engines work
How water towers work
How the Dawn mission works
How Kassam rockets work
How the North American Eagle works
Why aren't we flying to work?
How tofu and soy milk work
How Colony Collapse Disorder works
How airbags work
How the U.S. income tax works
How gum works
How caffeine works
How Daylight Saving Time works
How a cruise missile works
How snow making works

© 2007, How Stuff Works Inc. Distributed by McClatchy-Tribune Information Services.

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